Archive for the ‘Digital Copier’ Category

Photocopier Technology: Its History , Workings, And Usage Today

Monday, January 24th, 2011

photocopiers have been around for over 70 years and they are growing in popularity every year. While they were originally considered a luxury in the workplace, most offices now couldn’t function without one. They are as common as the coffee pot in the break room in most office environments.

There are many different models and brands of copiers in the marketplace today. Some of them use different technologies to make copies, but they all accomplish the same basic thing. Let’s look at a few of the more popular models on the market. One great photocopier is the Canon Imageclass MF7280 Duplex Copier. This copier utilizes laser technology to make its photocopies. This model is made for speed and is essential at a workplace that requires it. Your documents will print much faster than most copiers. You’ll love the functionality and ease of use that this copier provides.

Another model to consider is the Brother DCP-7020 Laser Digital copier. This copier features a pretty good speed at up to 17 copies per minute. It can reduce down to 25% and enlarges up to 400%. This is a little more economic choice than the first one if that is a factor in your decision.

Regardless of what photocopier you choose, it should be reliable. There is nothing more frustrating than a copier that is always having problems. It always seems to pick the busiest and most important day at your workplace to get jammed or mess up. You want to find a copier that is top-notch in its performance and is easily repairable. Getting a copier on its last leg isn’t usually a good idea, because repair parts are not readily available for it. Get a newer model that is known to be reliable.

The main two types of technology that are used in copiers now are xerography and laser printing. Laser is starting to emerge in many copiers, but xerography is the most widely used form of copier in the workplace. The idea behind xerography is simple but effective. The copier puts negatively charged areas on to the paper. The toner in the copier is positively charged and sticks to the negatively charged areas. The toner is then melted onto the paper with heat, which prevents it from wiping off. This makes copying fast and efficient.

In today’s market there are also a number of multifunctional devices being sold. Instead of just being a copier, the copier now doubles as a scanner, printer, and fax machine. It can be hooked up to the internet and send and receive emails. The list of functions that many of these new copiers have is virtually endless. In order to decide which type of device is best for you, look at what you’ll be using it for. Don’t buy something with functions that you don’t need just because someone tells you that you need it. Find the multifunction device that fits your offices budget and needs. This is the only real way to decide.

The history of the photocopier dates all the way back to 1938. It was then that Chester Carlson made the first photocopy. He was actually a patent attorney and grew tired of making all of those copies by hand. His arthritic hands made him search for an alternate method and he eventually found it. Thanks to his efforts we can now all enjoy the benefits of a photocopier. Regardless of which model you choose, it sure beats copying things by hand.

Ed Terran

Digital Business Products

Monday, January 17th, 2011

Technology makes it possible for professionals to manage, perform, and monitor various tasks efficiently and more effectively using a single device or equipment. Since the beginning of the digital era, doing business transactions has never been easy and fun. If you are still one of the very few people still juggling their countless works and home tasks using old and grumpy apparatus then I suggest you look at the items below and your life will never be the same again…


Imagine your fax machine, photo copier, scanner, printer, and phone all combined in a single unit. You can save so much money, space, and most importantly free yourself from the trouble of setting, configuring, maintaining and repairing all these units. Most mulifunctions currently offered in the market have all or some of the typical office business products such as the abovementioned equipment. Popular manufactures of multifunctions are Panasonic, Xerox, Canon, Lexmark, Philips, Sharp and Epson. With multifunctions, everything you need to do your business is all in one place.


Any presentation, be it a product demo, annual report meeting, or company event, will never be successful without an effective and creative visual effects. Most projectors are very handy and portable. A presenter can effortlessly persuade his audience about something because of what is projected in front of them. Projectors also make it possible for a huge number of viewers to see clearly what is being presented even if they are seated quite a distance away from the presenter.


Almost everything right now is done online. From reading important business messages, confirming client meetings, checking daily sales to inventory tracking, the internet ensures we can d business anytime and anywhere we are. And that is the reason why PDA’s have become popular and a must-to-have gadget for every professional individual who is constantly on the go. With a PDA, important files and contacts are only a click away. One can read and send emails, access important websites, organize files and documents without the need to reach the office, manage people’s addresses and contact numbers and even find the shortest route to an unknown meeting place. Isn’t it great?

Voice recorders

Modern models of  voice recorders come with special features such as voice recognition, joining and splitting of files, uploading of voice files, advanced security settings, and easy connection to other devices such as your persona computer. Years ago, voice recorders are simply used to document voice files but now you can use it to do other tasks which were normally done using other devices. Its name shouldn’t be voice recorder anymore!

Ronaldo Fisher

Web Search Rankings And Plagiarism

Tuesday, March 30th, 2010

Search Engines and Duplicate Content

Plagiarism, which is nothing but copied content, produces duplicate content between two websites. It is well known that search engines are adverse to duplicate or identical content and that page rankings can suffer because of plagiarism. Google has guidelines against plagiarism and warns website owners against creating multiple pages, subdomains, or domains with substantially duplicate content, as stated in its Webmaster Guidelines. Having even a substantially duplicate content, much more a totally duplicate website, will penalize a websites’ page rank.

In addition to having the page rank penalized, the website containing plagiarized work or duplicate content can even be affected so much so that it won’t even make it to the search results listing. This happens because web crawlers, in an effort to be more efficient, do not crawl duplicate and near-duplicate sites that they have determined in their previous crawl. Because of this, duplicate sites do not even get indexed by the web crawlers, and so are not listed in the results page. In Google, mirrored sites are delegated to the link at the bottom of the results page which says “Similar Results have been omitted…”

Higher Ranking for Plagiarists’ Websites

The problem, however, lies when search engines instead of penalizing plagiarists end up penalizing the website that actually wrote the original content. Website owners of original content oftentimes find that websites who have copied their content are given a better page rank by search engines.

Why Plagiarists Get a Higher Page Rank

This problem of being ranked lower than plagiarists’ site happens mainly since Google and other search engines algorithms are unable to distinguish between the original and the duplicate or copied content in their index. Although it is true that search engines in general are adverse to identical content, since there is currently no way for the search engines to know which content is original, website owners of the original content oftentimes find that their site actually gets a lower ranking than a plagiarists’ site. Hence website owners of original content are the one that sometimes get penalized for plagiarism.

Also, plagiarists, who are driven by profit use other SEO techniques that drive their page rank much higher. Hence, website owners with original content but without very good optimization techniques often find themselves ranked lower than content “borrowers”. This is of course a serious issue for website owners, especially business websites whose revenue gets affected by the lower page rank.

One way that search engines address the issue of duplicate content is by assigning priority for the content of the website that was indexed first. By rule of seniority, the first site that posts the content should be the site that contains the original content. This works most of the time but breaks down when plagiarists copy the content quite fast so that crawlers sometimes do index the copied site before the original one. When this happens the site with the copied content gets priority over that of the original content. To avoid this, some website owners use the Sitemaps system to submit their articles or other fresh content to Google. This ensures that the submitted content will be known to Google as the original and not the copy.

Fighting Plagiarism and its Effect on Your Page Rank

Plagiarism has been an issue long before the World Wide Web was created. The creation of the Internet has made it easier and more lucrative for plagiarists to copy content and pass it off as their own without any regard to copyright laws. As mentioned earlier it is a serious threat to business owners and at the very least is a source of irritation to bloggers whose posts or articles oftentimes get ripped off. Because of this, while most companies do their best to fight plagiarists many individuals find themselves losing heart. The fight against plagiarism seems to be a losing battle, especially to those who have no idea in countering plagiarism.

The first thing website owners can do is to find out in the first place if their site has been plagiarized. A good way to do this is by using Copyscape. Copyscape lets website owners enter their web pages’ URL and then proceeds to scan other websites and notify the user for very close matches in content. Using the standard Google search also works. Simply copy a short paragraph from your webpage and paste it in Google’s search box to come up with all the other websites that contain the same or similar information.

In case your content has been copied the next best step to take is to make a copy of the copied page(s) and then send an email to the website requesting them to remove the copied material or at least for a back link and proper crediting of the work, depending on your objective. In case the website owner or administrator doesn’t reply at all or in a favorable manner, the next step to take is to contact the web hosting company they are using. Inform them that the site that they are currently hosting is infringing copyright and that they have a responsibility legally to regulate such sites. This could lead them to pressure the site to remove the copied content. However, this tack doesn’t always work. When this happens it is time to take a more legal action and contact your lawyer. According to an advice given by Roy Sumatra, in case your web page rank is affected by the copied website do contact the search engines wherein your page rank is affected. Google is aggressive and serious in dealing with infringement issues and has guidelines for dealing with infringement of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act.

For those who want to prevent the hassle of being penalized as the copier of your own original content, as mentioned earlier, it is best to submit your content to through the Sitemaps system. By using the system, the content is submitted directly to Google and indexed by them automatically so that the content will be known as the original one and be given priority in case of plagiarism.

Danny Wirken

Fax Machines Pull Double Duty

Thursday, March 18th, 2010

If you work in an office, you probably already know how indispensable the office fax machine, copy machine and scanners are to the people who work in the office. The day to day goings on in the office world involve the copying, scanning and fax transmission of scanned and copied documents around the world on a daily basis.

One of the most convenient developments in the world of “convergence products” (a class of products that have been developed as hybrid devices that perform the tasks and have the full capabilities of multiple devices) is the office Fax/Scanner/copier devices that are becoming popular in SOHO and enterprise office environments around the world.

Within this class of product are several tiers of devices with varying levels of functionality. Entry level SOHO units are small desktop or tabletop devices that are not much larger than a standard fax machine. These devices usually connect to a host PC via USB or Ethernet (or both) and allow programs that can utilize its printing, faxing, scanning and copying capabilities to use it for any of these purposes. These small office machines replace an entire shelf of electronics that not only take up floor space, but also require users to visit multiple machines to accomplish one task.

On the higher end of the digital convergence office machines lives devices like Konica Minolta’s “BizHub” line of devices. These convergence units can perform all the roles of the smaller tabletop units, but also function as a network center for road warriors to connect back to the office and utilize the resources on site as if they were there. The BizHub line of devices allow for employees on the road to connect back to the office via a secure VPN connection enabled by the BizHub device. Users on the network can share data with off site employees as if they were in the same room. No need to deal with emails and attachments and disorganized communications. This new breed of office device does the job of many other devices while enabling inter-office communication that simply was not possible before its development.

James Hunt

Cancun Special Vacation Packages

Monday, March 15th, 2010

Indulge yourself in a one-of-a-kind experience with great vacation packages in Cancun Palace All Inclusive Hotel. There are lots of historic and beautiful places to visit with the whole family.

When looking for a great vacation package for family and friends, Cancun in Mexico has a lot to offer. Experience snorkeling, whale and dolphin watching, and kayaking. Visit popular tourist attractions, resorts, hotels and other accommodations.

Cancun is full of fabulous and historic landmarks. There’s the sacred ruins of Tulum in the streets of Playa del Carmen, and the ruins of Chicken Its in the east of Mirada (the capital Yucatan in Mexico). Get a chance to climb the world’s most famous Kukulkan pyramid in the ancient city of Mayan.

Cancun tour packages include air transport, entrance tickets to destinations, and resort/hotel accommodation.

One of the best places to stay in Cancun is the Cancun Palace All Inclusive Hotel. It is located at the edge of Caribbean Sea and Nicupte Lagoon in the middle of Mexico City. The hotel is a common favorite to tourists with a brilliant white sandy beach nearby.

They have 601 beautiful guestrooms all with full view of the lagoon and the ocean from the private balconies.

Staying in Cancun Palace will be memorable. The ambience, the amenities, the recreational facilities will all make one’s stay an experience to remember.

Hotel amenities include:

? 1 outdoor pool with kiddies section available at kids club
? 3 outdoor Jacuzzi
? 2 swim-up bars with sun lounge

Spa and fitness center

? Sauna and team bath
? Beauty salon
? Tennis courts, billiards, ping-pong, and other table games
? Kids Club, Teen Club daily with activities
? Nightly theme parties
? Concierge and Bell staff service
? Gift shop, jewelry store, business center, travel agency
? Conference Facilities
? car rental
? Doctor on call 24 hours
? Ice machines and vending machines
? High-speed Internet Access
? Meeting/banquet facilities
? Handicapped rooms/facilities
? Free Breakfast
? Restaurant

Hotel rooms features:

Superior Deluxe guestrooms with private balcony and double Jacuzzi tub with complimentary Farouk bath amenities and toiletries, plump bathrobes, slippers and hair dryers, rooms are fully-furnished with 1 king or 2 double-sized beds, mini bar with domestic beer, sodas and bottled water, liquor dispenser, coffee maker, digital safe, remote control flat screen LCD television with satellite, and one direct dial telephone line.


There are a lot of fine dining restaurants, bars and steak houses in the Hotel that serve various and exquisite delicacies. Dine at El Mercado Cuisine for international breakfast, lunch and dinner in buffet style. Leonardo Cuisine serves Italian style dinner. Frida Cuisine serves Mexican breakfast, lunch and dinner. Miyako Cuisine is famous for its oriental dishes.

For a taste of night life, visit the Pool Bars, Beach Bar, and Terraza Bar. The Lobby Bar has live musical entertainment every night.

Function Rooms:

Cancun Palace All Inclusive also have the facilities for meetings, conference and other gatherings in its fully-air conditioned convention center, meeting rooms and business center. All rooms are equipped with computers with free Internet connection, fax services and copier machines.

David H. Urmann

How Bluetooth Technology Has Changed The Way We Communicate

Friday, March 12th, 2010

The advances in technology in the past century have been extraordinary. From simple local communication abilities, to global, the world has been taking great strides in making technology a part of your daily life. The last few years have brought forth some truly unique technology, with the amount of wireless capabilities and products.

Bluetooth technology is by far at the front of the technological train. Bluetooth has changed the way we talk to people on phones from where we work. Some new products from Bluetooth have proved unique in that there are few like them.

Cell phones with bluetooth technology are completely wireless and compatible with your computer, PDA, Mp3 player, and now navigational system in your car. You no longer have to hold a phone and drive; the Bluetooth has allowed the phone to stay in your pocket as the car kit and phone become voice activated. If you would like to call someone you can simply speak the name and the phone will dial. You have the option of an earpiece and microphone or a system routed through your vehicles radio system. Whichever you choose this technology is sure to make talking on the phone much safer if you are driving.

Another interesting new technology with Bluetooth technology is the digital pen. The digital pen works with digital paper, writing just as you would with normal pens. You can simply write in your own handwriting on the digital paper and then place the pen in its home by your computer. The computer will upload the images from the pen right on to your computer. These pens may prove very handy for artists who would like to preserve some of the ideas they have without having to mess with a copier and scanner. The digital pen will also be useful for signature pages, you will not have to print and sign anymore, and you can sign the digital paper and upload on your computer with a touch of a button.

For navigational purposes there is nothing like the new product TomTom. This product has Bluetooth technology to give the most accurate directions available. With satellite navigation, it is currently in use in both Europe and North America. You can speak to the navigational system asking for directions to wherever you are going and TomTom will guide the way. No more time spent driving around lost or skipping the scenic route due to the chances of becoming lost. TomTom is so simple to use even a small child can operate it and get directions.

When you are in the market for new unique technological products Bluetooth has many to choose from. The advancement of wireless services is making life easier and more products accessible to people around the world.

Gregg Hall

Why are There Lines on My Copies?

Tuesday, March 9th, 2010

Why are there Lines on my Copies? (And How to Get Rid of Them!)

Have you ever made a copy and noticed that there are lines running down the length of the page? This article is about identifying image defects or lines that a Key-Operator (Person responsible for the equipment.) can fix on their own and lines that need a repair person to fix. You wouldn’t want to spend $75.00 to $150.00 for a technician to come out to just clean your glass, would you? No, I didn’t think so.

Slit Glass With the age of Multi-Functional Printers, (MFP’s) comes new problems. Fax Machines, Digital Copiers and MFP’s all have one thing in common. They all have an item on them known as the “Slit Glass.” Each machine that uses a slit glass as a way to scan images will eventually get dirty and cause lines on copies along with transmitted faxes. These machines don’t scan the same way that older or analog copiers do. Analog copiers use the entire glass with mirrors to get the image to the Photoconductor. Digital copiers use the slit glass. It passes along this small area and uses mirrors that direct it to the CCD unit. The CCD unit then converts the analog information into digital information. When using the Document Feeder or Processor the original only passes over the slit glass. It does not get copied from glass where you lay down your original.

How to Determine if the Slit Glass is the Problem. On Copiers, MFP’s and Fax Machines you can quickly diagnose if the slit glass is the problem.

copiers: First make a copy on the glass. If there are no lines showing, then make a copy through the Document Feeder or Processor. If there are lines on the copy then more than likely it is the Slit Glass causing the problem. I say more than likely because there are occasions where this may not be true.

Fax Machines and MFP’s: First print a journal or a function list. To print these refer to your Operators Manual. If you don’t have a line, make a copy through the Document Feeder or Processor. If there are lines then your problem is the slit glass.

Digital Copiers and MFPs This type of slit glass is easy to spot. Just lift the Document Feeder up and look for the small rectangular glass around 1 inch by 12 inches. Look at it carefully. If there is anything stuck on it, this will cause a line. The Image defect will look like a small pin sized line all the way across the page, although I’ve seen larger even 1 inch wide. The most common substance that I have found stuck to the glass is white-out. This happens because they don’t let it dry well before running it through the feeder. When it dries on the glass it doesn’t come off easily. Another issue is blobs of ink, again this is because of not allowing enough time for it to dry. Being impatient actually will cost you more time in the long run.

Cleaning the Slit Glass. Cleaning the slit glass is easy but you need to pay close attention and be sure that you have removed all of it. Take your finger nail and scrape off as much as you can. Get a cotton towel and saturate it with alcohol. I also recommend using an alcohol swab. These come in little sealed pouches and are inexpensive and easy to find. Let the spot soak for a minute and this will loosen up the white out. Glass cleaner does not remove it as good as alcohol. There is something about alcohol that breaks down the white out. Next, go over it with a lint free cotton towel soaked with glass cleaner, and then dry it off to eliminate streaks. Never spray the liquid on to the glass because some of it may find its way inside the machine.

Fax Machines. The slit glass on a fax machine may be a bit harder to get to. The document feeder or processor is normally under the control panel. Lift up the panel and shine a flash light on to the small slit glass. It is about 1 inch by 12 inches in diameter. Use the same technique to clean it.

You Cleaned the Slit- Glass but the Line is Still There. Some times the blob of white out is really stuck on the slit glass. I have a procedure that is fool proof in finding where the spot is, because sometimes it is so small that you can’t see it. First, get the copy that has the line on it. Hold it directly and evenly on the slit glass. Look carefully and see if you can follow the line to the glass. This is where the spot is. One thing about this procedure. You must check it both ways. Turn the original 180 degrees and inspect it again because the image is reversed because of the lens. Now that you have found the spot you may have to use a solvent to get that spot off. These can be stubborn and difficult to remove. You can try WD-40. My technicians use a solvent called D-Ink (Coopers). D-Ink is very expensive but it works well. If you still have the line on your copies then you have another problem.

Calling for Service Call a qualified repair person to come out and take a look. I recommend using a local independent repair company. Look them up in your Yellow Pages. I recommend an Independent because they usually are a smaller company and they will give you more personalized service. I hate those crazy phone systems, being stuck in a loop when trying to call for service. Most of the time they also have more experience and you won’t be paying for over- inflated hourly rates of an authorized dealer or huge corporation.

Other Line Problems If you followed my tests and you have a line both copying from the glass and using the Document Feeder then you have another problem. I believe that it is always a good idea to have a good technician ready to call, but why spend money when it is something so simple anyone could do it. Here is a list of probable causes. Many things could be wrong so I am not going to go in too much in detail.

Possible Causes / Lines

Laser Printers, Laser and LED Fax Machines Toner cartridge, Charge roller, paper or object stuck inside blocking the scanner, transfer roller, optics, and corona wire. Note: You can clean these but if you don’t know what you are doing you can damage something.

Inkjet Printers and Fax machines Print head, Ink cartridge, dirty optics, paper or object stuck up inside machine blocking the print-head or optics.

Copier and MFP’s Toner cartridge, Charge roller, paper or object stuck inside blocking the scanner, transfer roller, corona wire, and dirty optics. Note: You can clean these but if you don’t know what you are doing you may damage something.

I hope this article has helped you save some of your hard earned money. There really is no reason to spend money when you can just clean it yourself!

Bill Tucker

Creative Ways To Use Your Digital Camera – Learn To Never Leave Home Without It

Wednesday, March 3rd, 2010

Most people buy a camera to take pictures – which is what it is for. Photographs of family members, portraits, landscapes, animals, magazines, newspapers, etc. are the main purposes, to either put on the Web, business purposes, or just family stuff. However, there are many other ways and purposes the camera can be used – and lots more fun.

One of the innovative ways the digital camera can be used is for many areas of education purposes. Lectures use them for discussion clarity, such as traveling to Italy or to see the inside of a chemical. Many digital photos are used for medical teaching, such as diagnosis and treatments.

Building reference collections of a chosen field or interest is an excellent way to categorize things. Photographs are used for encouraging critical thinking skills, illustrating case studies, enhancing creative skills, emphasize visual communication abilities, analyze practices, to document an event, or to access knowledge or observations.

Insurance companies use digital photography techniques for substantial savings. When their field inspectors go out for claim inspections, they take photos with their digital cameras. After this, they immediately download them into their laptop computers, tagging each photograph with text information, including the policy and claim numbers. When this is done, they send the information back through a wireless server, where the server confirms their receipt and closes down. Next case is onboard for the inspectors within minutes. Statistics show that field inspectors who use digital cameras increase their caseload by 40%, with a savings of 70% in film and developing costs.

The possibility of taking digital photos of the home, trailer, or apartment, that is either for sale or one that has been damaged, is endless. The photo will reveal the actual need for repairs or replacements to the home insurance field agent, while also providing important locations of valves, location of utilities, or the general operations of things. If the front porch needs to be repaired, with estimates from carpenters, photos can be shot of the porch, while e-mailing them to several carpenters without leaving the home. You do not have to wait for them to visit you.

They can even e-mail the estimates back after looking at the pictures. When something major has occurred to the home – a hurricane or a flood – have the inspector arrive at the damaged property. Photographs can be taken by the inspector or by the homeowner of visible damaged areas, accessible items, heating systems, central air condition systems, plumbing, etc. upon which a hard copy of the inspection report will be handed over, corresponding to the matching photographs.

Try using the digital camera as a copier or scanner, with high-resolution camera for documents, important paper work, pictures, etc. If needed, use a tripod and lots of lighting to ensure the works will be clear and legible. To remember the address, or phone number on a billboard or yard sign, you can click a digital photo.

If we tend to forget where we park our car, a photo will help us to remember. We can also shoot photos of the back portion of computers, stereo sets, etc. This will help us to have a record of the serial numbers, the jacks, and ports, looking at how they are connected.

Using the digital camera for memory work, back ups, or proof and verification adds more value to the camera. It will also take time off insurance paper work for auto wrecks, home repair, or important paperwork if lost. It is simply a matter of getting into the habit of using it for personal benefits, instead of just leisure. The digital camera is not just another pretty face!

Mike Singh

Digital Cameras That Kick it Up a Notch

Sunday, February 28th, 2010

In an age when printers often act as copier, fax machine, and scanner and cell phones are not content to simply communicate, it would seem passé for a digital camera to rest on its laurels simply capturing and editing great images. With the challenge laid down, the digital camera has stepped up in the form of cross functional multimedia cameras.

First and foremost the multimedia camera offers great, high resolution still photography capabilities. The Samsung Digimax i6 and i70 as well as the Sony Cyber-shot DSC-M2 are examples which offer 6-7 megapixel resolution. Complete with sought after features such as optical zoom and a 2.5″ – 3.0″ LCD screen these cameras don’t give up much to accommodate their added functionality.

In addition to shooting photos, a multimedia camera can record high quality MPEG-4 video complete with stereo sound in some instances. With the Digimax i6 providing optical zoom and automatic macro focus, the filming capabilities are impressive. The Cyber-Shot version also provides video-editing and DVD-writing software for users to get creative in producing memorable films. Certainly, the efficiency of having a combined camcorder and still camera device in one is evident but the cost savings in some instances could be significant as well.

In addition to capturing great video, the Digimax i6 can play videos transferred from computer with TV quality images. Further encroaching on the domain of MP3 players, multimedia cameras live up to their name by offering MP3 download and play functions rounding out the entertainment experience.

The evolution of photography for the average home shutterbug has been vastly changed by the digital camera in the last decade, adding greater control over image quality and composition. With the introduction of the multimedia camera, it is clear the influence of digital cameras will continue well into the future.

Christine Peppler

The Creation of the Copier

Sunday, February 21st, 2010

It hasn’t always been so easy to make copies. We now can just walk up to a photocopier machine and press the print button and we instantly receive perfectly replicated copies of our original. Just forty seven years ago the copy machine was a pen and some sheets of carbon paper. Instead of pushing a button you had to write and write and then write some more! Just before the 60’s this was a reality and carbon paper was a big seller. Chester Carlson, a patent attorney knew how much of a pain it was to continue rewriting everything by hand because Carlson had arthritis. Carlson had an idea of designing a machine that would automatically make copies, so he didn’t have to do all of that copying by hand.

Think about doing your job without a copier. You probably will have a hard time imagining it. Did you know that most manufacturers didn’t think that a copier would be of much use? Chester tried for years to get people to catch his vision but nobody was interested. Between 1939 and 1944, Carlson got the thumbs down by many corporations, including IBM, Kodak, General Electric, and RCA.

In 1937 Chester invented a process called electrophotography. They renamed it Xerography in 1938. He figured out that if the image of an original document was projected onto a photoconductive surface, current would flow only in the areas where the light shined on it. The first copy was made with a sulfur coating on a zinc plate. He took a glass microscope slide and wrote on it 10-22-38 ASTORIA with ink. He then pulled down the shade to darken the room. He built an electrostatic charge buy rubbing the sulfur surface with a handkerchief. Then the slide was placed on the surface and a light was shined on it for few seconds. He then sprinkled lycopodium powder on the sulfur coating. Gently blowing on the surface, the loose powder blew off and all that was left was the inscription, 10-22-38 ASTORIA. 10-22-38 is the date that the first photocopy was made. Astoria was the location.

The Birth of Xerox The company that decided to take a chance on Carlson’s dream was the Haloid Company. Haloid was a photo-paper manufacturer in New York. Guess what they came to be known as? Yes, the Xerox Corporation. In 1960 the first office copier was produced. It was the Xerox model 914. It was the first office copier that could make copies on plain paper.

Being a copier repairman for over twenty years I have seen the good copiers with the bad copiers. I began working on copiers in 1983. The copiers that I began working with were messy and they would not last long in between servicing. The prices for the machines were very high especially for higher volume copiers. There were some interesting ways of transporting the paper through the machine like the Sharp SF-740. It grabbed the paper with two gripper devices that were driven with chains. This machine fused the toner to the paper with a toaster oven type device.

Some people may even remember having to pour toner into the copier from a bottle. But today’s copiers have a cartridge system that works well. They keep most of the toner inside the copier, not on you best pair of slacks or your dress. They have rollers for fusing the toner to the paper and have very sophisticated paper feed and transport systems that help reduce jamming problems. Digital copiers are now on the market. Now you can not only copy, but print, scan and even fax with them. Perhaps the most revolutionary change in the industry is the full color copier. The sales of full color copiers have really started to explode. There are a lot of new and exciting products being introduced and the quality is really quite good. We have come along way from Carlson’s ‘10-22-38 ASTORIA. I just can’t help to think what the future will bring us. What will the copier of the year 2020 look like?

Chestor F. Carlson (1906-1968). Chester F. Carlson was born on February 8, 1906 in city of Seattle. His father was a barber and they came to live in San Bernardino, California. He was a bright young man and was curious of how things worked. Carlson’s mom died when he was seventeen years old. They say that Carlson donated $100 million to charity before he passed away in 1968.

Bill Tucker